The word شُفَعَا / Shafa = intercession, also in one instance this term 89:3 ٱلشَّفْعِ / Ashafa = The Even been mention in Al-Quran.It is necessary to read all mention verses to understand this subject.
Unfortunately nearly every sect are depending and hoping for some kind of INTERCESSION.They simply claim their [Prophet / Imam / Priest /Rabies / Pir /Guru] will intercede for them. But the so-called Quranist reject this idea entirely by saying there is NO INTERCESSION whatsoever, which also goes against some verses. However to understand what is the INTERCESSION we need to obverse all verses with it’s context very carefully.
[2:48 / 2:123 /2:254 / 2:255 / 7:53 / 6:51/ 6:94 / 6:70 / 10:3 /10:18/ 19:87 / 20:109 / 21:28 / 26:100/ 30:30 / 32:4 / 34:23 / 36:23 / 39:43/44 / 40:18 / 43:86 / 53:26 / 74:48./4:48/4:64]
VERSES INDICATE ALLAH HIM SELF AS INTERCESSOR
The Quran 6:51
Give this warning to those in whose (hearts) is the fear that they will be brought (to judgment) before their Lord: except from Him they will have no protector nor intercessor: that they may guard (against evil).
The Quran 39:43
What! Do they take for intercessors others besides Allah? Say: "Even if they have no power whatever and no intelligence?"
The Quran 39:44
Say: "To Allah belongs exclusively (the right to grant) Intercession: to Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: in the End, it is to Him that ye shall be brought back."
These verses indicate of intercession by the permission of Allah
The Quran 10:03
Lo! your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He established Himself upon the Throne, directing all things. There is no intercessor (with Him) save after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Oh, will ye not remind?
The Quran 19:87
None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious (Allâh).
The Quran 20:109
On that Day shall no intercession avail except for those for whom permission has been granted by (Allah) Most Gracious and whose word is acceptable to Him.
The Quran 21:28
He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they offer no intercession EXCEPT for those who are acceptable, and they stand in awe and reverence of His (Glory).
The Quran 33:23
"No intercession can avail in His Presence, except for those for whom He has granted permission. So far (is this the case) that, when terror is removed from their hearts (at the Day of Judgment, then) will they say, 'what is it that your Lord commanded?' they will say, 'That which is true and just; and He is the Most High Most Great'."
The Quran 43:86
And those whom they invoke besides Allah have no power of intercession;- only he who bears witness to the Truth, and they know
The Quran 53:26
How many-so-ever be the angels in the heavens, their intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He pleases and that he is acceptable to Him.
VERSES WHICH INDICATE NO INTERCESSION
The Quran 2:48
And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.
The Quran 2:254
O ye who believe! spend out of (the bounties) We have provided for you before the Day comes when no bargaining (will avail) nor friendship nor intercession. Those who reject faith they are the wrong-doers.
The Quran 6:94
"And behold! ye come to Us bare and alone as We created you for the first time: Ye have left behind you all (the favours) which We bestowed on you: We see not with you your intercessors whom ye thought to be partners in your affairs: so now all relations between you have been cut off, and your (pet) fancies have left you in the lurch!"
The Quran 6:70
Leave alone those who take their religion to be mere play and amusement, and are deceived by the life of this world. But proclaim (to them) this (truth): that every soul delivers itself to ruin by its own acts: it will find for itself no protector or intercessor except Allah: if it offered every ransom, (or reparation), none will be accepted: such is (the end of) those who deliver themselves to ruin by their own acts: they will have for drink (only) boiling water, and for punishment one most grievous: for they persisted in rejecting Allah.
The Quran 10:18
And they worship besides Allâh things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allâh." Say: "Do you inform Allâh of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?" Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners (with Him)!
The Quran 74:48
So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them
The Quran 26:100
`And our seducers were only those who were steeped in guilt. (99) " `Now, then, we have none to intercede (for us), (100)
The Quran 32:4
It is Allah Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all between them, in six Days, and then He established Himself on the Throne (of authority): ye have none besides Him, to protect or intercede (for you): will ye not then receive admonition? (4)
The Quran 36:23
Shall I take (other) gods besides Him? If (Allah) Most Gracious should intend some adversity for me, of no use whatever will be their intercession for me nor can they deliver me
The Quran 40:18
Warn them of the Day that is (ever) drawing near, when the Hearts will (come) right up to the Throats to choke (them); no intimate friend nor intercessor will the wrongdoers have, who could be listened to.
Verses indicate Prophets & believers asking forgiveness for others in their lifetime
The Quran 3:159
It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them. Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted they would have broken away from about thee; so pass over (their faults), and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then when thou hast taken a decision, put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).
The Quran 4:64
We sent not an Messenger but to be obeyed, in accordance with the Will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
The Quran 12:97
They said: "O our father! Ask forgiveness (from Allâh) for our sins, indeed we have been sinners." (97) He said: "I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you, verily He! Only He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful."
The Quran 19:47
Ibrâhim (Abraham) said: "Peace be on you! I will ask Forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily! He is unto me, Ever Most Gracious
The Quran 24:62
Only those are Believers, who believe in Allah and His Messenger: when they are with him on a matter requiring collective action, they do not depart until they have asked for his leave: those who ask for thy leave are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger; so when they ask for thy leave, for some business of their, give leave to those of them whom thou wilt, and ask Allah for their forgiveness: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Quran 47:19
Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah, and ask forgiveness for the fault, and for the men and women who believe: for Allah knows how ye move about and how ye dwell in your homes.
The Quran 59:10
And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith and leave not in our hearts, rancour (or sense of injury) against those who have believed Our Lord! Thou art indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful."
The Quran 60:12
O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter then do thou receive their fealty and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (12)
The Quran 63:5
And when it is said to them "Come, the Messenger of Allah will pray for your forgiveness", they turn aside their heads, and thou wouldst see them turning away their faces in arrogance. (5) It is equal to them whether thou pray for their forgiveness or not. Allah will not forgive them. Truly Allah guides not rebellious transgressors.
VERSES INDICATE ANGEL SEEK FORGIVENESS FOR MANKIND
The Quran 9:26/7
They speak not before He speaks, and they act (in all things) by His command. (27) He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they offer no intercession except for those who are acceptable, and they stand in awe and reverence of His (glory).
The Quran 40:7
Those who sustain the Throne (of Allah) and those around it sing Glory and Praise to their Lord; believe in Him; and implore forgiveness for those who believe: "Our Lord! Thy reach is over all things in Mercy, and Knowledge. Forgive, then, those who turn in repentance, and follow Thy Path: and preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire!
The Quran 42:5
The heavens are almost rent asunder from above them (by His Glory): and the angels celebrate the Praises of their Lord, and pray for forgiveness for (all) beings on earth: behold! Verily Allah is He, the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
VERSES INDICATE PROPHET DUWA WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED
The Quran 4:106/7
But seek the forgiveness of Allah; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (106) Contend not on behalf of such as betray their own souls: for Allah loveth not one given to perfidy and crime.―
The Quran 9:113
It is not for the Prophet, and those who believe, to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters even though they may be near of kin (to them) after it hath become clear that they are people of hell-fire. (113)
The Quran 9:80
Whether thou ask for their forgiveness or not, (their sin is unforgivable): if thou ask seventy times for their forgiveness, Allah will not forgive them: because they have rejected Allah and His Messenger; and Allah guideth not those who are perversely rebellious.
OTHER RELATED VERSES
The Quran 2:281
And fear the day when ye shall be brought back to Allah. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.
The Quran 3:7
He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: in it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are not of well-established meaning. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is not of well-established meaning. Seeking discord, and searching for its interpretation, but no one knows its true meanings except Allah, and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in it; the whole of it is from our Lord"; and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding.
Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with him; but He forgiveth anything, else to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin most heinous indeed.
The Quran 4:84
Whosoever intercedes for a good cause will have the reward thereof, and whosoever intercedes for an evil cause will have a share in its burden. And Allâh is Ever All-Able to do (and also an All-Witness to) everything.
The Quran 5:36
As to those who reject Faith,- if they had everything on earth, and twice repeated, to give as ransom for the penalty of the day of Judgment, it would never be accepted of them, theirs would be a grievous penalty.
The Quran 5:109
On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together and say to them: "What was the response you received (from men to your teaching)?" They will say: "We have no knowledge, verily, only You are the All-Knower of all that is hidden (or unseen)."
The Quran 5:118
If Thou dost punish them they are Thy servants: if Thou dost forgive them, Thou art the Exalted in power the Wise.
The Quran 8:33
And Allâh would not punish them while you (Muhammad SAW) are amongst them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allâh's) Forgiveness
The Quran 9:101
And (there are) others who have acknowledged their sins, they have mixed a deed that was righteous with another that was evil. Perhaps Allâh will turn unto them in forgiveness. Surely, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (102) Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allâh for them. Verily! Your invocations are a source of security for them, and Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.
The day it arrives, no soul shall speak except by His leave: of those (gathered) some will be wretched and some will be blessed.
The Quran 13 :10
It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceal his speech or declare it openly; whether he lie hid by night or walk forth freely by day.
The Quran16 :89
And the Day when We shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves. And We shall bring you as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Book as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves
The Quran 17:13
Every man's fate We have fastened on his own neck: On the day of Judgment We shall bring out for him a scroll, which he will see spread open.
The Quran 17:71
One day We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imams: those who are given their record in their right hand will read it (with pleasure), and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.
The Quran 22:2
The day ye shall see it, every mother giving suck shall forget her suckling- babe, and every pregnant female shall drop her load (unformed): thou shalt see mankind as in a drunken riot, yet not drunk: but dreadful will be the Wrath of Allah.
The Quran 25:30
Then the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! truly my people took this Qur'an for just foolish nonsense."
The Quran 25:70
Unless he repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful
The Quran 30:57
So on that day no excuse of theirs will avail the transgressors, nor will they be invited (then) to seek grace (by repentance).
The Quran 36:65
That day shall We set a seal on their mouths. But their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to all that they did.
The Quran 40:49
Those in the Fire will say to the Keepers of Hell: "Pray to your Lord to lighten us the Penalty for a day (at least)!"
The Quran 40:52
The day when no profit will it be to Wrong-doers to present their excuses, but they will (only) have the Curse and the Home of Misery.
The Quran 55:39
On that day no question will be asked of man or Jinn as to his sin.
The Quran 78:38
The day that the Spirit and the angels will stand forth in ranks, none shall speak except any who is permitted by ((Allah)) Most Gracious, and He will say what is right.
The Quran 80:37
Each one of them, that day, will have enough concern (of his own) to make him indifferent to the others.
The Quran 82:19
(It will be) the day when no soul shall have power (to do) aught for another: For the command, that day, will be (wholly) with Allah.
MY UNDERSTANDING / ANALYSIS
It is crystal clear that in the day of Judgement there will be NO INTERCESSION [Talking/ Pardon /Forgive/ Bargaining] for those who committed SHREEK or Deny All mighty Allah or Reject any of HIS Ayat/ Law.[ 2:48 /4:48/2:254 10:18/ 74:48]
The criminal will wish for some deal but too late [5:36 & 7:53] They even continue hope for some intercession, even in the hell [40:49]
However some verses indicate Allah may give /have given permission for intercede [10:03 /19:87 /20:109 / 21:28 / 33:23 / 43:86 /53:26] So who are them ?
Some try to answer this by refrying it to the word [ahdan=Covenant ] on 19:87 and then they indicate it to [33:7 & 3:81 Mithaqa=Covenant from the Prophets]. And say the Prophet/Messenger will intercede.
But on 2:83 says Allah taken covenant from [Children of Israel] & on [3:187] taken from the people of the book too. Is this mean everyone whom was believer among [bani-Israil & Ahlul-Kitab] are allowed to do Intercession ?
What about Angel have they taken any covenant which entitles them to do intercede?
Some [Quran Alone] try to say [illa bi izni] is nothing but a Quranic styles and ways of expression which is a unique to the Qur'an, often these expressions follow on from a definite statement. But they do not necessarily negate the initial statement. These expressions serve purely to emphasise on the fact that Allah has the capability to will it both ways.
And they try to support their theory by giving example of the phrases like "except if He wills",[ illa masha Allah 87:6 / 6:128 39:38 & other]" and they apply the same rule for [illa bi izni Allah]=except if He gives permission".
But what they fail to see is some of them verse is not saying only [illa bi izni] it also say [adhina la hum] infact some verse indicate they will talk after permission given. And the verse [43:86] indicate only he who bear witness to the truth and THEY know. So it is NOT a word of expression it is something which actually going to happen. One of the other reason that they come up with such theory, is that they see it a contradiction.
Like some christen missionary claim by twisting several verse out of context to make a contradiction in the Quran such as..- [29:8] order people not obey their parent…But on several other verse [31:4] say be [kind/nice/dutiful] to your parent. And if we think so narrowly then it would seem a contradiction too BUT if read the context verse then we will know Allah is referring it to two different circumstance, such as NO Intercession[communication] will be allowed for KAFR/ MUSHRIK/ FASIK. Therefore the Quran has NO contradiction until MAN play with it by Twisting /Turning it original meaning.
Unfortunately the mankind don’t try to understands , that Allah did not mention [in the Quran] exactly who will intercede and exactly to whom this permission granted. The Sunni & Shai claim [Prophet/Imam/Shaikh/ & righteous believers] have the permission. And to make prophet Muhammad (P) a leader of all intercessor, they twist the meaning of verse [17:79 & 93:5] to establish their theory.
But they forget about [25:30] where the messenger will complain against them instated of intercede and on [5:118] Prophet Isa leave them to Allah to decide. And [5:109 ] also says every messenger will say they have NO knowledge & All mighty Allah knows best.
If someone forgiven because of an intercessor intervenes. [2:281] so did they really received what they earned and is not unjust for whom did not have this opportunity?
Anyway nearly every religious sect is hoping their religious leader WILL intercede for them. And this Intercession concept is well popular among all manmade religion including so-called Islam. Moreover this theory can be easily used [best tool] to steal ordinary people money & gain support/ leadership.
The verse that talk about [Ghfir=Forgive] asking forgiveness is NOT same as what called [SHAFA =Intercession] and also we notice all of then verse is talking / requesting for each other while they are alive /within life time.
How is it possible for prophet Muhammad (P) / any other Prophets [imam/sheikh/ Priest] ask forgiveness for whom they did not meet on their lifetime?
Everyone will witness against each other and Prophet Muhammad will be bought to witness and that is because he received & deliver the massage for the last/final time[16:89] and also [17:71] prove everyone will be gather behind their Imam /Messenger / Leader.
On the J-Day everyone can analyse there position by seeing there own deed which is hanging [record / written] on their neck [17:13]
How can anyone think about helping / interceding for other while the situation will be extremely serious as describe by the verse [22:2& 80:37] ?
Allah don’t need to hear something to hear it- HE knows it anyway [13:10] No SOUL can SPEAK[36:65] except his Permission [11:105] and when that soul speak this speaking itself is [The Intercession] either could be for his own self or for others as a witness. And this specific [TALK] is the intercession itself which either will be for Good or Bad & that talking soul itself will also benefit accordingly [4:84].
If we look closely on verse 20:109 it say when the permission given he will SPEAK WITH PLEASE..This also indicate that [ShaFa] is the Talking/Speaking itself.
[34:23] indicate when permission to TALK is granted after the FEAR [of talking] has been remove from their hearts to allow them to TALK. Which again also indicate the talking it self is the intercession.
And this how I understand the issue of INTERCESSION is indirectly meaning as [communicating / talking] [78:38]which only can happen when Allah give permission to anyone which could be anyone such as [human/jinn/angel],but the [Kullo Saffa=All Intercession ] is only belong to Allah [39:44] and by HIS permission ONE may [Intercede/Talk ]for himself or for others as WITNESS. Also since no question need to be ask thefore not much speaking NEEDED unless what /whom Allah permit to do the talking [55:39]
Unfortunately some Quran followers give extreme view on this subject too, by saying NO intercession NOT AT ALL without proper explanation, but they forget by saying as such, do exclude the OPTION, which indicated by [illa bi izni=only with permission ] so they too extremes the Issue, like the Sectarian.
Finally surly I do not wish to take any chance /risk by depending on any form of so-called intercession other the Allah and HIS Intercession. I also try not make to fuss about this issue I rather observe rule of 3:7 and leave it for Allah to decide who CAN / Who will NOT or What actually is this [intercession] But one thing I can say clearly, is that everything belong to all mighty ALLAH & HE has the power over everything and HE knows best and NO ONE will have any power on the Day of judgement [82:19 ] Also please note the word "intercession" to it some original meaning / definition such as [intervention mediation arbitration negotiation] could be quite bad and against the general message of AQ and could lead to shirk if it use on that senses [Allah knows best]